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Kinds of Intelligence
Gardner's Multiple Intelligences
Spearman's Model
Sternberg's Model
Gardner's Multiple Intelligences


Howard Gardner was born in 1943 and is still alive today. Gardner originally proposed the existence of seven multiple intelligences. Gardner's view is that there is more to intelligence than verbal and mathematical abilities measured by intelligence tests. In 1998, Gardner added one more form of intelligence to the previous seven kinds.

1) Verbal/Linguistic - This involves sensitivity to spoken and written language, the ability to learn language, and the capacity to use language to accomplish certain goals. Writers, poets, lawyers, and speakers are those who have high linguistic intelligence.

2) Musical - This intelligence involves the skill in performance, composition, and appreciation of musical patterns. This is evident in composers, singers, and musicians and runs in parallel with the linguistic intelligence.

3) Logical/Mathematical - This intelligence consists of the ability to analyze problems logically, carry out mathematical operations, and investigate issues scientifically. This intelligence is most used in science and mathematics.

4) Visual/Spatial - This intelligence involves the potential to recognize and use the patterns of wide space and more confined areas. This intelligence is useful in art and navigation and observed in artists, pilots, and astronauts.

5) Bodily Kinesthetic - This intelligence is the ability to control body motions and to handel objects skillfully. This is found in dancers and athletes.

6) Interpersonal - This intelligence is the sensitivity to people and an ability to understand what motivates them, how to work effectively with them, and how to lead and to follow. Educators, salespeople, and leaders all need a well-developed interpersonal intelligence.

7) Intrapersonal - This entails the capacity to understand oneself and to appreciate ones feelings, fears, and motivations.

8) Naturalist - This enables humans to recognize, catergorize, and draw upon certain features of the environment. This information is used in activities such as farming and landscaping.

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