Howard Gardner was born in 1943 and is still alive today. Gardner originally proposed the existence of seven multiple intelligences.
Gardner's view is that there is more to intelligence than verbal and mathematical abilities measured by intelligence tests.
In 1998, Gardner added one more form of intelligence to the previous seven kinds.
1) Verbal/Linguistic - This involves sensitivity to spoken and written language, the ability to learn language, and the
capacity to use language to accomplish certain goals. Writers, poets, lawyers, and speakers are those who have high linguistic
2) Musical - This intelligence involves the skill in performance, composition, and appreciation of musical patterns.
This is evident in composers, singers, and musicians and runs in parallel with the linguistic intelligence.
3) Logical/Mathematical - This intelligence consists of the ability to analyze problems logically, carry out mathematical
operations, and investigate issues scientifically. This intelligence is most used in science and mathematics.
4) Visual/Spatial - This intelligence involves the potential to recognize and use the patterns of wide space and more
confined areas. This intelligence is useful in art and navigation and observed in artists, pilots, and astronauts.
5) Bodily Kinesthetic - This intelligence is the ability to control body motions and to handel objects skillfully. This
is found in dancers and athletes.
6) Interpersonal - This intelligence is the sensitivity to people and an ability to understand what motivates them, how
to work effectively with them, and how to lead and to follow. Educators, salespeople, and leaders all need a well-developed
7) Intrapersonal - This entails the capacity to understand oneself and to appreciate ones feelings, fears, and motivations.
8) Naturalist - This enables humans to recognize, catergorize, and draw upon certain features of the environment. This
information is used in activities such as farming and landscaping.